All World Politics Is Local

Over the past several years regional integrations have become one of the crucial features of the international system, and it leap out to world politics more than before. In this regard, I will try and assess how does regional interdependence influence the prospects for conflict and integration.

In political literature, regionalism is the most significant factor that focuses a particular region as traditional or official, and it counters the regions influence and political power either through the movements for limited form of autonomy. When we look at regionalist behaviours we often see a favour loose federator or confederate over a unitary.

In today’s world regionalism redefining as many part of the world is looking for ways to integrate themselves into international system. Putting into consideration this, first regional arrangements appears as the most effective way of doing so. From this perspective, regionalism and globalization may think as relative cases. Regionalism includes one aspect of globalization, but also pluralism with external and internal factors. This is also motivating the forces into more regional cooperation, and they are currently developing in different parts of the world.

For one, regional agreements cover different combinations of economic, social, political, security concerns and there are a lot of diverse forms of interactions which states also encourage regional cooperation too. Economic cooperation mostly related with the commercial favouritism but it does not include any domestic instructions for common action in the international area, while political cooperation reflects the traditional values within the state. States determines their foreign policy or any kind of security means with inform each other as a part of cooperation.

On the other hand, every state has their own unique cultural features which determine their foreign policy. Culture identity defines external limits by persuading members of the community to believe in the uniqueness of their culture. It reveals as a comparative effect of basic cultural norms, instead of ideology or economic essentials. Furthermore, understanding the role of culture in world politics has been given added tied to cultural methods that has occur outstanding to post-medieval globalization, and distinct cultures meeting with the emergence of global community and accepting the cosmopolitan culture.

Differences in the local context of interaction determines states’ international behaviour as well as their domestic attributes. Take China for example, despite a tremendous growth in economy it does not reveal as a super military or political power conversely with US. Instead, it presents more optimistic foreign policy behavior based on ‘live in peace all together’. This can observe through the solved problems with many countries from Middle East and Eurasia such as Afghanistan, Nepal, and Kazakhstan since mid ‘60s. China also trying to maintain the stability related energy & cultural policies in the region, signing harassment settlements with other Asian countries.

Isolating the domestic processes within countries cannot account for the observed variation in distribution of political democracy over time and space, and that the likelihood of transitions is strongly related to changes in neighbouring countries and the prior history of the regional context.



I want to begin at the point to where the misunderstanding begins: the meaning of the tolerance.The word of tolerance or being tolerated does not indicate to exposure state by suffering from some one’s behaviour. Instead, it reflects to being respected to all humans rights and freedom. This will be shown by looking at how kind of experiences did Europe have and how East & Asia societies still suffer from intolerance.

When we look at the emergence of the tolerance in the historical context, we first encounter with Saint Augustinus. As we know. he legimitized his autocracy with using quite remarks from the Bible the most famous one of them was ”Compell them to come in that may be my house fill”, from (Luke 14:23) When people have exteremely fear or love about something they have a enormous fear to lose it and that pursued them to being governed.

There are plenty of incidents in the European historical context may be exampilify this, however, maybe the most effective one appeared in the Jean Calas case, and he has been the symbol of Christian Religious Intolerance in France. And others followed by St Bartholomew Massacre and Thirty Years Wars. Remember how many Protestant people assasinated in one night and almost all Hugenot leaders have been murdered during French Wars of Religion. England also experienced Glorious Revolution and these sort of events led to occur significant figures in Europe such as Voltaire or John Locke, and the dozens of laws revealed in Germany and Austria, respectively.

Among these ufortunate events of Europe reflected to political and social life and it mostly handled human rights issues when it comes to mid 60’s. Since the liberal doctotines enunciated by these intellectual personalities, people had a chance to convey their rights to governments. According to this theory of state, governments have a only permission to protect and develop citizens’ life.

Now, I want to move on with a simple comparison with Eastern and Asian governments but also societies, and try and point out to issue from my mind. First, conversely with Christianism, we primarily see Islam forbids any kind of coercions in religion and Quran says, ”There shall be no coercion in matters of faith” – (Bakara 256). This is important because it wil be a real higlight to assess two religion’s reflection in society. Think about Eastern societies mainly consists by Muslim people, is there enough tolerance between people. As one of the person living in a Muslim country I say no. This is mainly not just because of the religious but also political attitudes, however there is no exception among these societies. We tend to set stones into human rights rather than respect. This contradicts with the composing soul of Islam and dissapointing to see people still behaving prejudicely to people from other religions. Take Turkey for example, at lots of girls forbidden by goverments to go to university because of their scarves and sexually begrudged in society. As a woman I did not suffer but then again it would be heart breaking to attribute myself lucky.

Taken as a whole, my confusion begins here, if we all conveyed our rights to government in order to guaranted them, so why are they taking such a delight to reject the some people’s preferences? I have the biggest frustration to living in one of the Muslim country where the human rights violence is high. This should not be forgotten that to put a pressure on any kind of beliefs strenghts the it rather than vice versa.

The Alineation of Modern Man

“It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but, on the contrary, their social being that determines their consciousness.” ― Karl Marx, A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy


Ok, I am not saying that I completely agree with Marxist theory from many aspects, but, I’ve been thinking over his alineation theory lately more than I do. I think his theory is quite relavant today where the specializing very rare and boring.

We are living, so we are told, through a paradoxial world. In other words, full of contradiction currently revealing among modern worlds issues. On the one hand, the endless sources of capitalism pumps so many alternatives in many ways and we never feel the absence of anything, but, on the contrary, economical and social aspects narrows everything in our life. Despite the huge sources of capital world, the rate of employment is rapidly rising, rich get richer and poor get poorer, creating more inequality conversely with freedom. It is clear that the progressive function of capitalism provides the material base for a society of genuine freedom in the future.

To commemorate Marx, today’s working class – some say bourgeoisie, represents the theory successfully. Take a typical employee for example, who is putting a sticker on cookies all day long. At some point, he might think why am I doing this for or what differences am I doing? From the mind of Marx, this person would means a lot. It is unfortunately quite common for the modern world in a different content.

Yet now what I see in the modern world is so many devoted lifestyles to become alike others, wasting time with stalking to create a social self. Typically, most of us constantly thinking about what other people’s job alike, how could I be more succesful or make more money If I didn’t do this job. You may think this is a bad day-dreaming, flashing in your heads day and night. As such, this is where the modern man’s alienation is happening..

The fact that, no matter how succesfull or clever you are, you are greedy for more.. This is so normal as well because capitalism in itself is so dynamic and greedy; pushing us to ask more. In a way, it is putting us into a competitive crash and we are carrying our lives with envying others, who the others envy for the others.. No matter how kind of ideological or intellectual background you are coming from, it is so clear that this is the hyprocracy of the modern world.

All in all, what I would hope and suggest is that to understand why the world is working in the way it is. Should to understand it so, we need a vision rather than ambitious; we need more sociology rather than envy; we need more reading rather than living as empty, and we need to try and understand how odd modern world is going on.

A Kinder, Gentler Philosophy of Success – An Inspirational Talk by @alaindebotton

I do not remember when or how I did come across to him but I have been devoted to philosopher Mr Alain de Botton for a very long time. He has kind of magical logic to interpret the daily life problems that we all have, and at some point, you could take so many perceptions into your life.

He never patronising and always accesible even when talking about complex things; I love his approach so very much. Everytime I listen him, I try and understand over and over again what kind of world that am I living through.

I just want to share a link here- from one of his TEDx talks. There are loads more are on Youtube so be sure to search his name there too. You will see that some ideas really worth spreading..

Enjoy x



So I’ve just finished watching the Life of Pi and it is safe to say Ang Lee’s another amazing film.


The film starts from interesting life of little Pi, who is living in India with his family. His father has a zoo, and one day, decides to close the zoo to move to Canada. He sells off a majority of the zoo animals to various zoos in America. The animals are loaded onto the same boat that the family will take to reach Winnipeg, Canada. On the journey to North America, the boat sinks.

As the only survivor of the shipwreck, he’s stuck in a lifeboat with a dying zebra and a hyena. Pi sees another survivor floating in the water and only after throwing them a life preserver and pulling them aboard does he realize that “Richard Parker” is actually the 400 pound tiger from his father’s zoo.

So, up to 7 weeks in the boat, all animals dies except Richard Parker, and Pi have to survive with a huge tiger in the middle of the Ocean. Pi hides on a makeshift and begins the process of taming the tiger with learning fishing. After a while, Pi gets close to him and learn how to survive, sharing with the tiger.

At a certain point, the two become so hungry and as time passes, they become quite ill. Still floating along alone and desperate, the two come across an island made of algae. Pi begins to eat so many algae longinly and recovered himselves and but they have to leave the island because of an acid produced by the island during the night hours.

Finally, after more time spent floating along in the ocean, Pi sights land in Mexico and disembarks. Richard Parker immediately runs off into the woods and Pi is recovered by two men from the shipping company who owned the boat that sank with his family on it. He relates to them the story of his 227 days on the boat, but they do not quite believe his fantastic tale of surviving with a Bengal Tiger and meeting a blind man in the ocean.


I have to be honest and say even I heard about succesful Indian movies a lot, I just procrastinated to watch the film first. Maybe the reason was, my thoughts over Brockeback Mountain as an exception for Ang Lee, and didn’t really expect to be ‘hitten’ by this film. But it did. Surprisingly, I did take such a delight of its sincere explanation in every minute of it and enjoyed with16 yr old boy and Richard Parker’s surviving.

The tiger was the crucial threat for him to alert, for sure. Perhaps you could think there is no tiger or all of its just his halucinations but, at one point, you could put yourself into Pi and ask, what would I do if I was there? Because, I did this so many times while watching it, and God knows I could never survive due to my heart attack. And I know so many other people couldn’t too, as indicated in the survey at the end of the film.

There are also great pictures in the film. I would suggest you to watch it in a cinema if you could, but watching at home also could leave quite impact on you, for sure. You just feel the movie all along stunning pictures while adapting their surviving in the ocean. It’s clear that Ang Lee put all his labour into the work to create fantastic pictures.. From the exotic soul of India to the breath-taking atmosphere of ocean, the film offering georgeous travel for us..

I also love Pi’s genuinesly approach to events since the begining of the film. What makes us stronger than belief? As a devoted Muslim, I liked his confused approach to the religion. As such, he has kind of mixed belief taken from three holy religions, which makes him non-religious. Interestingly, he has a strong belief to all, giving mindful reflections from each one during his surviving.

All those hard times did not kill his mercy inside.. While he was suffering from an extreme hunger and illness he shared his food with the tiger and never let him die. Pi, a 16 yr old boy, actually showed that ‘hope’ should never be lost. Overall, Angle Lee, who I admired him from Brokeback Mountain, impressed me once again. Just for a quick look to IMDB, the film got 8.2 point already, and seems to challenge other movies in the 11 different category, besides Steven Spielberg, Ouentin Tarantino, and other prominent director’s films.

I want to stop here, as it’s something you should discover for yourself.

This is a Must Watch. Go have it, you must.

Modern Times Reflections: Animal Farm & Equal Marriage


Do you remember the novel “Animal Farm” by George Orwell? In the story, animals on a farm joined together, overthrew their human owners, and “liberated” all the animals.

The first thing the animals do was proclaim that “all animals are equal.” They painted this credo on the barn in big letters for all to see. Over time, some animals started taking charge — overseeing things at the farm, devising the rules and enforcing them. Order was necessary after all! All this seemed innocent and harmless enough until the animals in charge got comfortable with their power. They had cushy jobs on the farm, as did their family and friends.

Other animals worked and worked, being punished if they questioned this arrangement. The governing animals produced nothing, but took more than an equal share of feed and water, claiming it was necessary for maintaining order and productivity on the farm.

One night, without discussion or consent, the governing animals changed the credo on the barn to: “All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others…”

If you look around you today, you might think the animals’ situation seems all too familiar, all too applicable to our lives today. Modern politicians and bureaucrats have learned that it’s best not to draw any attention to the privileged lives THEY enjoy at OUR rights. The dividing line is just same in Orwellian story.

Having read the latest debates over equal marriage, I funnily caught myself while thinking, ‘ how my gay friend from the UK has been one of the irreplaceable person for me, took me to so many cultural places, helped through things, gave wonderful conscious-expanding talks, while making my holiday worth living.”

Then I just came to realised that stereotyping people to according to their sexuality is awful. In my view, marriage is not an institution based on equality, so how else possibly people can begrudge some to join this?It is not my business. But if two people attached to each other in a romantic way, it’s certainly no business of law or any representatives, either.

The talks and debates through British Parliament has just revealed one thing is that, how many of UK’s elected representatives are barking Christians, full of hate and culturally empty. It’s clear that conservative arguments against gay marriage come down to sex. As the Tory MP puts it:

‘….If the government is serious about this, take it away, abolish civil union bill that applies to all people irrespective of their ‘sexuality’ or their relationship. That means brothers and brothers and sisters and sisters and brothers and sisters as well.”

So, is marriage really about sex? That does mean marriage is not about love. It just rationalize the debate over forced marriage as ‘fine’. Conservatives are currently pushing for conformity. But if equality is the right to conform, then they should not pretend like marriage is a mean of equality.

If this debate showed anything is that GB only changed its attitude to gay people socially, not politically.

Orwell vs. Huxley

Orwell huxley

If you think Orwell predicted a world envisaged by Huxley, think again!

Having heard a lot Orwell ‘inspired’ by Huxley’s work, invited me to an ‘essay’ of the debate on this paper. Since it is not easy to think of two books which could attract me more, I expect I must make my position clear as well as present the differences between two great works..

Orwell and Huxley, they were both critically acclaimed writers creating imaginatory visions of the future in their novels which was an utterly different experiences ahead of their time. If you have read Huxley’s Brave New World first, then Orwell’s 1984, you initially would recognize the Orwell’s convergence with Huxley’s idea and it would be hard to distinguish the main differences between two works in the first place. Although Orwell’s book must consider as ‘dystopia’, by contrast, Huxlean future quite close to the ‘utopia’; which there is no Room 101, no torture, and no war like Orwell’s terrifying 1984. All the characters have an ordinary life and ‘universal happiness’ with a perfect-pleasure drug, soma. It does make you high. From the Huxlean perspective, we would be considered as we are living through the era of ‘post-drug designers’. Typically, when you reading this paper, millions of others are building battle grounds, managing their football teams or feeding their animals. Think about the latest update of PS, with ‘Health and Safety Warning’ at startup. (It would got me freak out due to my anxiety disorder.) Wow!

Let’s move on and get back to the debate. An enlightening letter penned by Orwell (October 1949) to Huxley, lighted on their different ideas more and revealed that two men had different points to portray terrifying totalitarian society. In the letter, Huxley began by making the positive reviews for 1984, telling to Orwell ’how fine and how profoundly important the book is‘. It has been published in the website ‘Letters of Note’, which gather and sort old letters, postcards, telegrams, faxes, and memos:

In Orwell’s world, we see communication would be limited to prevent people’s communication against government, the destruction and ban of media will limit our knowledge, and the truth would be disappear through repressive control.

In Huxlean future, however, government will encourage mass media for more entertainment to pacify people’s attention from political issues, our transfixion with entertainment would drow our desire to learn the real knowledge, and society would allow itself to disregarding anything of importance.

So, were they an exaggeration?

Tragically, no. Yet now we are living through both curses from the past, remember the conditions of last uprisings in the Middle East or Europe spread by social media and the governments’ restrictions to access the internet. Another may add about the increasingly huge role of entertainment in people’s life. In 2011, while the Presidential State of the Union was watching by 43 million people, Super Bowl was watched by over 100 million people.

P.s. If you like these sort of books I would suggest you to read ‘Fahrenheit 451’ by Ray Bradbury and ‘Clockwork Orange’ by Anthony Burgess, either. They are both somewhere between Orwell and Huxley. You’re Welcome.