41st Anniversary of Bloody Sunday

After the modern states have emerged with Westphalia (1648), the world politics has never be the same. Undoubtedly, the crucial dimensions of that period have led to wide range of terrorist groups and organizations. Since then, governments have been trying to take so many precautions in order to prevent the negative results of terrorism. However, is it possible to prevent terrorist attacks without hurting civilians?

PAR63316It has been a controversial debate between human rights and state terrorism so far. As for civilians, facing a lot of damages by terrorist attacks causes an irrational fear in society in the long term and, governments, on the other hand, try to protect civilians from the unavoidable results of the ‘collateral damage’. In those times, governments may intervene civil rights more than normal times and this may cause great crises in society.

In Northern Ireland, The Bogside Massacre, – known as Bloody Sunday– has been one of the most classical incident of state terrorism, in which 26 unarmed ordinary people protesting their opposition to state injustice and mass murders on streets were shot by the British Army. Thirteen males, seven of whom were teenagers, died immediately or soon after, while the death of another man four-and-a-half months later was attributed to the injuries he received on that day. After investigations held by British government, the city’s coroner, retired British Army Major Hubert O’Neill, made a statement on 21 August 1973, at the completion of the inquest into the people killed. He declared:

‘’This Sunday became known as Bloody Sunday and bloody it was. It was quite unnecessary. It strikes me that the Army ran amok that day and shot without thinking what they were doing. They were shooting innocent people. These people may have been taking part in a march that was banned but that does not justify the troops coming in and firing live rounds indiscriminately. I would say without hesitation that it was sheer, unadulterated murder. It was murder.’’

The 41-year period since 30 Jan 1972, has been a major commemorative for universal concerns about how best to secure open-ended democratic transformation. Essentially, the 41st Anniversary allows all people to learning, debating, lobbying and challenging the powerful.

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Virginia’s Manifestation: A Room of One’s Own

  

“A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction.”

– Thank you, Virginia. Quite right.

25th of the January is the birthday of Virginia Woolf, who was an English writer, and of the foremost modernist of the tweentieth century. Though she has criticised for solely focusing on the upper middle class of English intellengtsia, she made a major contribution to the English literature, and also to the feminist ideology. And some of famous books that you may remember by her, Mrs. Dolloway (1925), To The Light House (1927), and Orlando (1928). All of them reflects Virginia’s poetic vision and her soul deeply. However, the one I would like to talk about is ‘A Room of One’s Own'(1929).

In this work, Virginia try to make a great connection between ‘Woman’ and ‘Fiction’. The ongoing debate which focusing the unequality of women in society is protracted. There is a plenty of evidence in the historical context to give examples since the beginning of the modern world. To illustrate, take warriors, state leaders, workers, poets, authors and other groups for example. They are mainly consists of men. You can find so many socio- economical reasons  behind it which related to gender in society. As a feminist one, Virginia was passionate in search of answers in her book. And I really did like the way of her approach to the subjects while reading. Thanks her, for using the logic as a gift of a language! Who could portray Shakespeare as a woman except Virginia? The fact that she caught me at the very beginning of the book. After awhile, i felt dazzled, delighted and eager to read her more..

The thesis of the ‘A Room of One’s Own’ – women must have money and a privacy in order to write – is inevitably connected to the class. ”Genius like Shakespeare’s is not born among labouring, uneducated, servile people.” The words are hard but Virginia was firm. She primarily did note that women have been kept from writing because of their relative poverty, and financial freedom will bring women the freedom to write; “In the first place, to have a room of her own..was out of the question, unless her parents were exceptionally rich or very noble”. (Snap!). The title also refers to any author’s need for poetic licence and the personal liberty to create art. She thus pointed out to freedom and money to determine the means of womens lives. Women was uneducated, had to marry at fifteen and carry dozens of children.. As one can see, her points was shaping around socio-economic reasons, mainly. Overall, the message of the book is simple: women must have a fixed income and a room of their own in order to have freedom to create.

Out of many reasons, the one I really do like about the book is, the way its pushing you to overview today’s society again and find seven differences between two pictures.. Today, we definitely living in the world that most of the women living through better conditions. When Virginia wrote that book, it was 1930 and until now, there has been so many changes in the world. Women occurs in political, social, and economical life effectively than world around her – 30’s. In developed regions; Europe and USA, high number of fearless women appears in a wide area of working. And this seems to rationalize her insistency upon ‘money, freedom and successs’ triangle.

My Jihad is Women’s Rights: Stop FGM now!

female_genital_mutilation_in_the_u_s_no_compromise

From Middle East to Asia, it is not uncommon to see that female having a genital mutiliation. Yet, having criticised by many NGO’s, it is most and probably the worst tradition which is UNRELATED to Islam. In this paper, i’m going to elaborate the background of this terrinble disaster and try to clarify that its hazard.

There are several reasons for this extremely dangerous tradition. First, religious and cultural background determine the rules of this. It is basic one condition in order to keep womens’ virginity until marriage. At the same time, man usually does not prefer to marry with an uncircumcised woman. It is hardly surprising that man think over this issue logically, adopting this tradition since little ages. Furtermore, circumciser demands quite good money from this job.

FGM is typically carried out on girls from a few days old to puberty. It usually performed without an anaesthesia, by a traditional circumciser using a knife, razor, or scissors. The main three are Type I, removal of the clitoral hood, Type II, removal of the clitoris and inner labia; and Type III, removal of all or part of the inner. Facing a direct violation by society, think about how kind of extreme trauma that little girls could have..

Yet the organizations such as United Nations and World Health Organization are still inadequate; social traditions cannot simply change and as such, you cannot intervene them. Take Egypt, for instance; after the Arab Spring, Muslim Brothers who was fighting for democracy against Mubarak regime, turned into biggest supporter of the FGM.

Let’s move on and remember the modern world’s foremost attributes: Individual rights, freedom of choice, gender equality, etc. FGM is neither a choice to make on your body, nor equal as men. Even men’s circumcision is cumpulsory in other religions tho, its comparatively much healthier than a woman’s one. Circumcise a woman means; put one woman’s life in danger or cause physical and physiological disasters in the long term. Overall, we see it is a direct humiliation to women’s body that must consider as human rights violation. In this regard, the world need attention not by just women, but all sensible people should response it.